CCR Papers from January 2014

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  • Dina Papagiannaki
    Happy new year! Welcome to the January 2014 issue of ACM Computer Communications Review. We are starting the new year with one of the largest CCR issues I have had the pleasure to edit. This issue contains 10 papers, 6 technical peer reviewed contributions and 4 editorial notes.
    The technical papers cover a range of areas, such as routing, Internet measurements, WiFi networking, named data networking and online social networks. They should make a very diverse and interesting read for the CCR audience. In the editorial zone, we have had the pleasure to receive 4 contributions, 3 out of which address fundamental issues around how our community works.
    In his editorial note, Prof. Nick McKeown, from Stanford University, is providing his perspective on the issues that go right and the issues that could be improved in the way our premier conference, ACM SIGCOMM, is organized. Prof. McKeown is making a case for a more inclusive conference, drawing examples from other communities. He is further attempting to identify possible directions we could pursue in order to transfer our fundamental contributions into the industry and the society as a whole. 
    One more editorial is touching upon some of the issues that Prof. McKeown is outlining in his editorial. Its focus is to identify ways to bridge the gap between the networking community and the Internet standardization bodies. The authors, from Broadcom, Nokia, University of Cambridge, Aalto University and University of Helsinki, are describing the differences and similarities between how the two communities operate. They further provide interesting data on the participation of academic and industrial researchers in standardization bodies. They discuss ways to minimize the friction that may exist as a particular technology is making the leap from the scientific community into the industry. 
    Similarities can also be found in Dr. Partridge’s editorial. Dr. Partridge identifies the difficulties faced in publishing work that challenges the existing Internet architecture. One of the interesting recommendations made in the editorial is that a new Internet architecture should not start off trying to be backwards compatible. He encourages our community to be more receptive when it comes to those contributions.
    Lastly, we have the pleasure to host our second interview in this issue of CCR. Prof. Mellia interviewed Dr. Antonio Nucci, that is the current CTO of Narus, based in the Bay Area. In this interview you will see a description of Dr. Nucci’s journey from an academic researcher to the Best CTO awardee and his recommendations on interesting research directions for current and future PhD candidates.
    All in all, this issue of CCR features a number of interesting, thought provoking articles that we hope you enjoy. The intention behind some of them is that they become the catalyst to a discussion as to how we can make our work more impactful in today’s society, a discussion that I find of critical importance, given our society’s increasing reliance on the Internet.
    This issue is also accompanied by a number of departures from the editorial board. I would like to thank Dr. Nikolaos Laoutaris, and Dr. Jia Wang, for their continuous help over the past 2 and 3 years respectively. And we are welcoming Prof. Phillipa Gill, from Stony Brook University, and Prof. Joel Sommers, from Colgate University. They both join the editorial board with a lot of passion to contribute to CCR’s continued success.
    I hope this issue stimulates some discussion and I am at your disposal for any questions or suggestions.
  • Ahmed Elmokashfi, Amogh Dhamdhere
    In the mid 2000s there was some concern in the research and operational communities over the scalability of BGP, the Internet’s interdomain routing protocol. The focus was on update churn (the number of routing protocol messages that are exchanged when the network undergoes routing changes) and whether churn was growing too fast for routers to handle. Recent work somewhat allayed those fears, showing that update churn grows slowly in IPv4, but the question of routing scalability has re-emerged with IPv6. In this work, we develop amodel that expresses BGP churn in terms of four measurable properties of the routing system. We show why the number of updates normalized by the size of the topology is constant, and why routing dynamics are qualitatively similar in IPv4 and IPv6. We also show that the exponential growth of IPv6 churn is entirely expected, as the underlying IPv6 topology is also growing exponentially.
    Jia Wang
  • Mishari Almishari, Paolo Gasti, Naveen Nathan, Gene Tsudik
    Content-Centric Networking (CCN) is an alternative to today’s Internet IP-style packet-switched host-centric networking. One key feature of CCN is its focus on content distribution, which dominates current Internet traffic and which is not well-served by IP. Named Data Networking (NDN) is an instance of CCN; it is an on-going research effort aiming to design and develop a full-blown candidate future Internet architecture. Although NDN’s emphasizes content distribution, it must also support other types of traffic, such as conferencing (audio, video) as well as more historical applications, such as remote login and file transfer. However, suitability of NDN for applications that are not obviously or primarily content-centric. We believe that such applications are not going away any time soon. In this paper, we explore NDN in the context of a class of applications that involve lowlatency bi-directional (point-to-point) communication. Specifically, we propose a few architectural amendments to NDN that provide significantly better throughput and lower latency for this class of applications by reducing routing and forwarding costs. The proposed approach is validated via experiments.
    Katerina Argyraki
  • Mohammad Rezaur Rahman, Pierre-Andr Nol, Chen-Nee Chuah, Balachander Krishnamurthy, Raissa M. D'Souza, S. Felix Wu
    Online social network (OSN) based applications often rely on user interactions to propagate information or to recruit more users, producing a sequence of user actions called adoption process or cascades. This paper presents the first attempt to quantitatively study the adoption process or cascade of such OSN-based applications by analyzing detailed user activity data from a popular Facebook gifting application. In particular, due to the challenge of monitoring user interactions over all possible channels on OSN platforms, we focus on characterizing the adoption process that relies only on user-based invitation (which is applicable to most gifting applications). We characterize the adoptions by tracking the invitations sent by the existing users to their friends through the Facebook gifting application and the events when their friends install the application for the first time. We found that a small number of big cascades carry the adoption of
    most of the application users. Contrary to common beliefs, we did not observe special influential nodes that are responsible for the viral adoption of the application.
    Fabian E. Bustamante
  • Phillipa Gill, Michael Schapira, Sharon Goldberg
    Researchers studying the inter-domain routing system typically rely on models to ll in the gaps created by the lack of information about the business relationships and routing policies used by individual autonomous systems. To shed light on this unknown information, we asked  100 network
    operators about their routing policies, billing models, and thoughts on routing security. This short paper reports the survey's results and discusses their implications.
    Jia Wang
  • Pablo Salvador, Luca Cominardi, Francesco Gringoli, Pablo Serrano
    The IEEE 802.11aa Task Group has recently standardized a set of mechanisms to eciently support video multicasting, namely, the Group Addressed Transmission Service (GATS). In this article, we report the implementation of these mechanisms over commodity hardware, which we make publicly available, and conduct a study to assess their performance under a variety of real-life scenarios. To the best of our knowledge, this is the rst experimental assessment of GATS, which is performed along three axes: we report their complexity in terms of lines of code, their e ectiveness when delivering video trac, and their eciency when utilizing wireless resources. Our results provide key insights on the
    resulting trade-o s when using each mechanism, and paves the way for new enhancements to deliver video over 802.11 Wireless LANs.
    Sharad Agarwal
  • Alberto Dainotti, Karyn Benson, Alistair King, kc claffy, Michael Kallitsis, Eduard Glatz, Xenofontas Dimitropoulos
    One challenge in understanding the evolution of Internet infrastructure is the lack of systematic mechanisms for monitoring the extent to which allocated IP addresses are actually used. Address utilization has been monitored via actively scanning the entire IPv4 address space. We evaluate
    the potential to leverage passive network traffic measurements in addition to or instead of active probing. Passive traffic measurements introduce no network traffic overhead, do not rely on unfiltered responses to probing, and could potentially apply to IPv6 as well. We investigate two chal-
    lenges in using passive traffic for address utilization inference: the limited visibility of a single observation point; and the presence of spoofed IP addresses in packets that can distort results by implying faked addresses are active. We propose a methodology for removing such spoofed traf-
    fic on both darknets and live networks, which yields results comparable to inferences made from active probing. Our preliminary analysis reveals a number of promising findings, including novel insight into the usage of the IPv4 address space that would expand with additional vantage points.
    Renata Teixeira
  • Craig Partridge
    Some of the challenges of developing and maturing a future internet architecture (FIA) are described. Based on a talk given at the Conference on Future Internet Technologies 2013.
  • Marco Mellia
    Dr. Antonio Nucci is the chief technology officer of Narus1 and is responsible for setting the company’s direction with respect to technology and innovation. He oversees the en- tire technology innovation lifecycle, including incubation, research, and prototyping. He also is responsible for ensuring a smooth transition to engineering for final commercialization. Antonio has published more than 100 technical papers and has been awarded 38 U.S. patents. He authored a book, “Design, Measurement and Management of Large-Scale IP Networks Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice”, in 2009 on advanced network analytics. In 2007 he was recognized for his vision and contributions with the prestigious Infoworld CTO Top 25 Award. In 2013, Antonio was honored by InfoSecurity Products Guide’s 2013 Global Excellence Awards as “CTO of the Year” [1] and Gold winner in the “People Shaping Info Security” category. He served as a technical lead member of the Enduring Security Framework (ESF) initiative sponsored by various U.S. agencies to produce a set of recommendations, policies, and technology pilots to better secure the Internet (Integrated Network Defense). He is also a technical advisor for several venture capital firms. Antonio holds a Ph.D. in computer science, and master’s and bachelor’s degrees
  • Aaron Yi Ding, Jouni Korhonen, Teemu Savolainen, Markku Kojo, Joerg Ott, Sasu Tarkoma, Jon Crowcroft
    The participation of the network research community in the Internet Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) has been relatively low over the recent years, and this has drawn attention from both academics and industry due to its possible negative impact. The reasons for this gap are complex and extend beyond the purely technical. In this editorial we share our views on this challenge, based on the experience we have obtained from joint projects with universities and companies. We highlight the lessons learned, covering both successful and under-performing cases, and suggest viable approaches to bridge the gap between networking research and Internet standardization, aiming to promote and maximize the outcome of such collaborative endeavours.
  • Nick McKeown
    At every Sigcomm conference the corridors buzz with ideas about how to improve Sigcomm. It is a healthy sign that the premier conference in networking keeps debating how to reinvent and improve itself. In 2012 I got the chance to throw my hat into the ring; at the end of a talk I spent a
    few minutes describing why I think the Sigcomm conference should be greatly expanded. A few people encouraged me to write the ideas down.
    My high level goal is to enlarge the Sigcomm tent, welcoming in more researchers and more of our colleagues from industry. More researchers because our eld has grown enormously in the last two decades, and Sigcomm has not adapted. I believe our small program limits the opportunities for our young researchers and graduate students to publish new ideas, and therefore we are holding back their careers. More colleagues from industry because too few industry thought-leaders are involved in Sigcomm. The academic eld of networking has weak ties to the industry it
    serves, particularly when compared to other elds of systems research. Both sides lose out: there is very little transfer of ideas in either direction, and not enough vigorous debate about the directions networking should be heading.
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