CCR Papers from January 2007

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  • Manuel Crotti, Maurizio Dusi, Francesco Gringoli, and Luca Salgarelli

    The classification of IP flows according to the application that generated them is at the basis of any modern network management platform. However, classical techniques such as the ones based on the analysis of transport layer or application layer information are rapidly becoming ineffective. In this paper we present a flow classification mechanism based on three simple properties of the captured IP packets: their size, inter-arrival time and arrival order. Even though these quantities have already been used in the past to define classification techniques, our contribution is based on new structures called protocol fingerprints, which express such quantities in a compact and efficient way, and on a simple classification algorithm based on normalized thresholds. Although at a very early stage of development, the proposed technique is showing promising preliminary results from the classification of a reduced set of protocols.

    Chadi Barakat
  • Shengming Jiang

    All optical packet switching (AOPS) technology is essential to fully utilize the tremendous bandwidth provided by ad vanced optical communication techniques through forward ing packets in optical domain for the next generation net work. However, long packet headers and other complex op erations such as table lookup and packet header rewriting still have to be processed electronically for lack of cost effective optical processing techniques. This not only in creases system complexity but also limits packet forwarding speed due to opticalelectronicoptical conversion. Lots of work of improving optical processing techniques to realize AOPS is reported in the literature. Differently, this paper proposes a new networking structure to facilitate AOPS realization and support various existing networks through simplifying networking operations. This structure only re quires an AOPS node to process a short packet header to for ward packets across it with neither table lookup nor header rewriting. Furthermore, it moves high layer addressing is sues from packet forwarding mechanisms of routers. Conse quently, any changes in addressing schemes such as address space extension do not require changes in the AOPS nodes. It can also support both connectionoriented and connec tionless services to carry various types of traffic such as ATM and IP traffic. This structure is mainly based on the hierar chical source routing approach. The analytical results show that average packet header sizes are still acceptable even for long paths consisting of many nodes each of which has a large number of output ports.

    Jon Crowcroft
  • Xenofontas Dimitropoulos, Dmitri Krioukov, Marina Fomenkov, Bradley Huffaker, Young Hyun, kc claffy, and George Riley

    Research on performance, robustness, and evolution of the global Internet is fundamentally handicapped without accurate and thorough knowledge of the nature and structure of the contractual relationships between Autonomous Systems (ASs). In this work we introduce novel heuristics for inferring AS relationships. Our heuristics improve upon previous works in several technical aspects, which we outline in detail and demonstrate with several examples. Seeking to increase the value and reliability of our inference results, we then focus on validation of inferred AS relationships. We perform a survey with ASs' network administrators to collect information on the actual connectivity and policies of the surveyed ASs. Based on the survey results, we find that our new AS relationship inference techniques achieve high levels of accuracy: we correctly infer 96.5% customer to provider (c2p), 82.8% peer to peer (p2p), and 90.3% sibling to sibling (s2s) relationships. We then cross-compare the reported AS connectivity with the AS connectivity data contained in BGP tables. We find that BGP tables miss up to 86.2% of the true adjacencies of the surveyed ASs. The majority of the missing links are of the p2p type, which highlights the limitations of present measuring techniques to capture links of this type. Finally, to make our results easily accessible and practically useful for the community, we open an AS relationship repository where we archive, on a weekly basis, and make publicly available the complete Internet AS-level topology annotated with AS relationship information for every pair of AS neighbors.

    Ernst Biersack
  • David Malone, Ken Duffy, and Christopher King

    Ricciato poses several questions, including why a particular LD (log-diagram) plot does not give the Hurst parameter predicted by theory? We offer an explanation of his observation and highlight other unusual aspects of LD plots.

  • G. Vu-Brugier, R. S. Stanojevic, D. J. Leith, and R. N. Shorten

    Internet router buffers are used to accommodate packets that arrive in bursts and to maintain high utilization of the egress link. Such buffers can lead to large queueing delays. Recently, several papers have suggested that it may, under general circumstances, be possible to achieve high utilisation with small network buffers. In this paper we review these recommendations. A number of issues are reported that question the utility of these recommendations.

  • Jon Crowcroft

    Network Neutrality is the subject of much current debate. In this white paper I try to finnd the signal in the noise by taking a largely technical look at various definitions of network neutrality and the feasibility and complexity of implementing systems that support those ideas.

    First off, there are a lot of emotional terms used to describe various aspects of what makes the melting pot of the

    neutrality debate. For example, censorship or black-holing (where route filtering, fire-walling and port blocking might say what is happening in less insightful way); free-riding is often bandied about to describe the business of making money on the net (rather than overlay service provision); monopolistic tendencies, instead of the natural inclinationof an organisation that owns a lot of kit that they've sunk capital into, to want to make revenue from it!

    The paper describes the basic realities of the net, which has never been a level playing field for many accidental and some deliberate reasons, and then looks at the future evolution of IP (and lower level) services; the evolution of overlay services, and the evolution of the structure of the ISP business space (access, core and other); finally, I appeal to simple minded economic and regulatory arguments to ask whether there is any case at all for special pleading for the Internet as a special case, different from other services, or utilities.

  • Mostafa H. Ammar

    So it is my turn to recommend a reading list of 10 networking papers. I decided to take this opportunity to recommend papers from the networking area's past. I have several reasons for focusing on such a list. First, as a relatively young discipline that has seen tremendous growth in recent activities and contributions, our present tends to overwhelm our past in sheer volume.

  • Nick Feamster, Lixin Gao, and Jennifer Rexford

    Today’s Internet Service Providers (ISPs) serve two roles: managing their network infrastructure and providing (arguably limited) services to end users. We argue that coupling these roles impedes the deployment of new protocols and architectures, and that the future Internet should support two separate entities: infrastructure providers (who manage the physical infrastructure) and service providers (who deploy network protocols and offer end-to-end services). We present a high-level design for Cabo, an architecture that enables this separation; we also describe challenges associated with realizing this architecture.

  • Helmut Bürklin, Ralf Schäfer, and Dietrich Westerkamp

    This paper gives a brief overview of the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) project. Starting in 1993, this project produced standards for digital broadcasting in all media (satellite, cable, terrestrial) using return channels of various kinds. In the current phase, DVB has also embraced Internet Protocol (IP) based delivery on telco and cable.

  • Dmitri Krioukov, kc claffy, Marina Fomenkov, Fan Chung, Alessandro Vespignani, and Walter Willinger

    Internet topology analysis has recently experienced a surge of interest in computer science, physics, and the mathematical sciences. However, researchers from these different disciplines tend to approach the same problem from different angles. As a result, the field of Internet topology analysis and modeling must untangle sets of inconsistent findings, conflicting claims, and contradicting statements.

    On May 10-12, 2006, CAIDA hosted the Workshop on Internet topology (WIT). By bringing together a group of researchers spanning the areas of computer science, physics, and the mathematical sciences, the workshop aimed to improve communication across these scientific disciplines, enable interdisciplinary crossfertilization, identify commonalities in the different approaches, promote synergy where it exists, and utilize the richness that results from exploring similar problems from multiple perspectives.

    This report describes the findings of the workshop, outlines a set of relevant open research problems identified by participants, and concludes with recommendations that can benefit all scientific communities interested in Internet topology research.

  • Jon Crowcroft and Peter Key

    Europe has often followed in the footsteps of US research, but here we are trying to lead in Clean Slate networking research, rather than Cleans late networking. This is a report from a recent workshop on this topic.

  • Christoph Neumann, Nicolas Prigent, Matteo Varvello, and Kyoungwon Suh

    While multi-player online games are very successful, their fast deployment suffers from their server-based architecture. Indeed, servers both limit the scalability of the games and increase deployment costs. However, they make it easier to

    control the game (e.g. by preventing cheating and providing support for billing). Peer-to-peer, i.e. transfer of the game functions on each each player’s machine, is an attractive communication model for online gaming. We investigate here the challenges of peer-to-peer gaming, hoping that this discussion will generate a broader interest in the research community.

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